November 21, 2018

 

Our Stem Cell related Medical Papers-Hope Medical Group

MEDICAL PAPERS

Here is a small collection of stem cell treatment related medical papers.
We have many more which are in Chinese and are being reviewed for translation into English.

For your research and education;
Please note: we do not use embyonic stem cells.

 

 Cancer Immune therapy papers

Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Stroke Patients

Annals of Neurology, 2005, Vol.57, pp.874-882. “Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation improves recovery from ischemic stroke in animals. We examined the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of cell therapy using culture-expanded autologous MSCs in patients with ischemic stroke. We prospectively and randomly allocated 30 patients with cerebral infarcts within the middle cerebral arterial territory and with severe neurological deficits into one of two treatment groups: the MSC group (n=5) received intravenous infusion of 1*10^8 autologous MSCs, whereas the control group (n=25) did not receive MSCs. Changes in neuro-logical deficits and improvements in function were compared between the groups for 1 year after symptom onset. Neuroimaging was performed serially in five patients from each group. Outcomes improved in MSC-treated patients compared with the control patients: the Barthel index (p  0.011, 0.017, and 0.115 at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively) and modified Rankin score (p=0.076, 0.171, and 0.286 at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively) of the MSC group improved consistently during the follow-up period. Serial evaluations showed no adverse cell-related, serological, or imaging-defined effects. In patients with severe cerebral infarcts, the intravenous infusion of autologous MSCs appears to be a feasible and safe therapy that may improve functional recovery.”

Effect of Intracoronary Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells on Outcomes of Patients with Refractory Chronic Heart Failure Secondary to Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

The American Journal of Cardiology, 2006, Vol.98, pp.597-602. “Recent studies have indicated that stem cell implantation increases cardiac function by repairing damaged myocardium. We investigated whether intracoronary transplantation of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) confers beneficial effects in patients with refractory chronic heart failure. Twenty-eight patients received standard heart failure medication and BMMC transplantation (BMMC treatment) or standard medication only (controls). BMMCs were harvested from each patient. Clinical manifes- tations, biochemical assays, rhythm studies, echocardiograms, and positron emission to- mograms were recorded. Fourteen patients with cell grafting had symptomatic relief of heart failure within 3 days. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 9.2% and 10.5% at 1 week and 3 months after the procedure, respectively, versus baseline (p <0.01 for the 2 comparisons). Left ventricular end-systolic volume decreased by 30.7% after 3 months (p <0.01). Brain natriuretic peptide levels at days 3 and 7 after cell infusion significantly decreased by 69.2% and 70.4%, respectively, whereas atrial natriuretic peptide levels increased by 30.1% at day 7. Positron emission tomographic analysis showed a significant increase in cell viability of 10.3% in the infarcted zone. No patient died in the BMMC- treated group at 6-month follow-up. In contrast, heart failure did not improve in any control patient. Left ventricular ejection fraction decreased by 7.2% after 3 months. Two control patients died from heart failure within 6 months. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration in humans that intracoronary BMMC transplantation is a feasible and safe therapeutic strategy to decrease symptoms, increase cardiac function, and possibly prolong life in patients with end-stage heart failure refractory to standard medical therapy.”

Evidence for Neuroprotective Properties of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells After Neuronal Hypoxia In Vitro

BMC Neuroscience, 2008, Vol.9, No.30. “Background: One of the most promising options for treatment of stroke using adult stem cells are human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells that were already approved for therapeutic efficacy in vivo. However, complexity of animal models has thus far limited the understanding of beneficial cellular mechanisms. To address the influence of HUCB cells on neuronal tissue after stroke we established and employed a human in vitro model of neuronal hypoxia using fully differentiated vulnerable SH-SY5Y cells. These cells were incubated under an oxygen-reduced atmosphere (O2< 1%) for 48 hours. Subsequently, HUCB mononuclear cells (MNC) were added to post-hypoxic neuronal cultures. These cultures were characterized regarding to the development of apoptosis and necrosis over three days. Based on this we investigated the therapeutic influence of HUCB MNC on the progression of apoptotic cell death. The impact of HUCB cells and hypoxia on secretion of neuroprotective and inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and expression of adhesion molecules was proved. Results: Hypoxic cultivation of neurons initially induced a rate of 26% ± 13% of apoptosis. Hypoxia also caused an enhanced expression of Caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Necrosis was only detected in low amounts. Within the next three days rate of apoptosis in untreated hypoxic cultures cumulated to 85% ± 11% (p ≤ 0.001). Specific cytokine (VEGF) patterns also suggest anti-apoptotic strategies of neuronal cells. Remarkably, the administration of MNC showed a noticeable reduction of apoptosis rates to levels of normoxic control cultures (7% ± 3%; p ≤ 0.001). In parallel, clustering of administered MNC next to axons and somata of neuronal cells was observed. Furthermore, MNC caused a pronounced increase of chemokines (CCL5; CCL3 and CXCL10). Conclusion: We established an in vitro model of neuronal hypoxia that affords the possibility to investigate both, apoptotic neuronal cell death and neuroprotective therapies. Here we employed the therapeutic model to study neuroprotective properties of HUCB cells. We hypothesize that the neuroprotective effect of MNC was due to anti-apoptotic mechanisms related to direct cell-cell contacts with injured neuronal cells and distinct changes in neuroprotective, inflammatory cytokines as well as to the upregulation of chemokines within the co-cultures.”

Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cell Grafts for Brain Ischemia

Cell Transplantation, 2009, Vol.18, pp.985-998. “Irreversible and permanent damage develop immediately adjacent to the region of reduced cerebral blood perfusion in stroke patients. Currently, the proven thrombolytic treatment for stroke, tissue plasminogen activator, is only effective when administered within 3 h after stroke. These disease characteristics should be taken under consideration in developing any therapeutic intervention designed to widen the narrow therapeutic range, especially cell-based therapy. Over the past several years, our group and others have characterized the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood cells for stroke and other neurological disorders using in vitro and vivo models focusing on the cells’ ability to differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells including neural lineage, as well as their ability to produce several neurotrophic factors and modulate immune and inflammatory reaction. Rather than the conventional cell replacement mechanism, we advance alternative pathways of graft-mediated brain repair involving neurotrophic effects resulting from release of various growth factors that afford cell survival, angiogenesis, and anti-inflammation. Eventually, these multiple protective and restorative effects from umbilical cord blood cell grafts may be interdependent and act in harmony in promoting therapeutic benefits for stroke.”

Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells, Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

Clinical Medicine, 2009, Vol.9, No.4, pp.342-5. “Myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke are the first and third leading causes of death in the USA accounting for more than 1 in 3 deaths per annum. Despite interventional and pharmaceutical advances, the number of people diagnosed with heart disease is on the rise. Therefore, new clinical strategies are needed. Cell-based therapy holds great promise for treatment of these diseases and is currently under extensive preclinical as well as clin- ical trials. The source and types of stem cells for these clin- ical applications are questions of great interest. Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) appears to be a logical candi- date as a source of cells. hUCB is readily available, and pre- sents little ethical challenges. Stem cells derived from hUCB are multipotent and immunologically naive. Here is a critical literature review of the beneficial effects of hUCB cell therapy in preclinical trials.”

A Long-term Follow-up Study of Intravenous Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Ischemic Stroke

Stem Cells, 2010, Vol.28, pp.1099-1106. “We previously evaluated the short-term follow-up preliminary data of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation in patients with ischemic stroke. The present study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of i.v. MSCs transplantation in a larger population. To accomplish this, we performed an open-label, observer-blinded clinical trial of 85 patients with severe middle cerebral artery territory infarct. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups, those who received i.v. autologous ex vivo cultured MSCs (MSC group) or those who did not (control group), and followed for up to 5 years. Mortality of any cause, long-term side effects, and new-onset comorbidities were monitored. Of the 52 patients who were finally included in this study, 16 were the MSC group and 36 were the control group. Four (25%) patients in the MSC group and 21 (58.3%) in the control group died during the follow-up period, and the cumulative surviving portion at 260 weeks was 0.72 in the MSC group and 0.34 in the control group (log-rank; p 5 .058). Significant side effects were not observed following MSC treatment. The occurrence of comorbidities including seizures and recurrent vascular episodes did not differ between groups. When compared with the control group, the follow-up modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was decreased, whereas the number of patients with a mRS of 0–3 increased in the MSC group (p 5 .046). Clinical improvement in the MSC group was associated with serum levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and the degree of involvement of the subventricular region of the lateral ventricle. Intravenous autologous MSCs transplantation was safe for stroke patients during long-term follow-up. This therapy may improve recovery after stroke depending on the specific characteristics of the patients.”

Non-haematological Uses of Cord Blood Stem Cells

British Journal of Haematology, 2009, Vol.147, pp.177-184. “Embryonic stem (ES) cell therapies are often promoted as the optimal stem cell source for regenerative medicine applications because of their ability to develop into any tissue in the body. Unfortunately, ES cell applications are currently limited by ethical, political, biological and regulatory hurdles. However, multipotent non-ES cells are available in large numbers in umbilical cord blood (CB). CB stem cells are capable of giving rise to hematopoietic, epithelial, endothelial and neural tissues both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CB stem cells are amenable to treat a wide variety of diseases including cardiovascular, ophthalmic, orthopaedic, neurological and endocrine diseases. In addition, the recent use of CB in several regenerative medicine clinical studies has demonstrated its pluripotent nature. Here we review the latest developments in the use of CB in regenerative medicine. Examples of these usages include cerebral palsy and type I diabetes. The numbers of individuals affected with each of these diseases are estimated at 10 000 infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy annually and 15 000 youths diagnosed with type 1 diabetes annually. A summary of the initial results from such clinical studies using autologous cord blood stem cells will be presented.”

Systemic Delivery of Umbilical Cord Blood Cells for Stroke Therapy: A Review

Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 2009, Vol.27, pp.41-54. “Purpose: This review paper summarizes relevant studies, discusses potential mechanisms of transplanted cell-mediated neuroprotection, and builds a case for the need to establish outcome parameters that are critical for transplantation success. In particular, we outline the advantages and disadvantages of systemic delivery of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells in the field of cellular transplantation for treating ischemic stroke. Methods: A MEDLINE/PubMed systematic search of published articles in peer-reviewed journals over the last 25 years was performed focusing on the theme of HUCB as donor graft source for transplantation therapy in neurological disorders with emphasis on stroke. Results: Ischemic stroke remains a leading cause of human death and disability. Although stroke survivors may gain spontaneous partial functional recovery, they often suffer from sensory-motor dysfunction, behavioral/neurological alterations, and various degrees of paralysis. Currently, limited clinical intervention is available to prevent ischemic damage and restore lost function in stroke victims. Stem cells from fetal tissues, bone marrow, and HUCB has emerged in the last few years as a potential cell transplant cell source for ischemic stroke, because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types and the possibility that they may provide trophic support for cell survival, tissue repair, and functional recovery. Conclusion: A growing number of studies highlight the potential of systemic delivery of HUCB cells as a novel therapeutic approach for stroke. However, additional preclinical studies are warranted to reveal the optimal HUCB transplant regimen that is safe and efficacious prior to proceeding to large-scale clinical application of these cells for stroke therapy.”

Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells for the Repair of Myocardial Infarction

Medical Science Monitor, 2008, Vol.14, No.10, pp.163-172. “Cell therapy for myocardial disease is a rapidly evolving medical field. A vast and growing body of evidence indicates that cell-based strategies have promising therapeutic potential. Recent clinical and pre-clinical studies demonstrate a varying degree of improvement in cardiac function using different sources of adult stem cell types such as bone marrow-derived progenitor cells and skele- tal myoblasts. However, the currently available regimens for cell transplantation into the infarcted myocardium have limitations from practical points of view, in particular the logistics in harvesting donor cells. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for a new source of adult stem cells. Human um- bilical cord blood (HUCB) is a good candidate and appears to have several key advantages. HUCB is a viable and practical source of progenitor cells. Compared to bone marrow, HUCB contains a higher number of immature stem/progenitor cells. The aim of our review is to provide an update on the preclinical experiments with emphasis on the possible mechanisms underlying the thera- peutic benefits of HUCB cell transplantation for myocardial infarction.”

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