September 25, 2018

 

Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer-Hope Medical Group

Disadvantages of Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy works by interrupting cell division in cells that are multiplying quickly. Since cancer cells reproduce at an abnormally fast rate, they are affected by chemotherapy. Several cycles are needed to catch more cells, since not all of them will be dividing on the day you get chemotherapy. Unfortunately, other cells in your body also reproduce quickly enough to be affected by the treatment. Hair follicles shut down, which means your hair either falls out or does not grow. The linings of the mouth, stomach, and intestines also contain cells that multiply rapidly. These cells are disrupted by chemotherapy, which can cause mouth sores, a "burned tongue" sensation, nausea, constipation, hemorrhoids, and diarrhea.
The disadvantage of radiotherapy is also the worry that the cancer will come back.

Non-surgical treatments
DC + CIK cells can effectively cure cancer.
Today, tumors can be detected early and removed with advanced surgery and treatment, but current therapies cannot prevent or eradicate cancer after metastatic spread to distant organs. The prognosis is very poor if Cancer spreads to the brain. As a shielded "sanctuary site," the brain may harbor cancer cells which resist current treatments and can develop into satellite tumors, known as metastases, long after chemo-, radiation, or immuno- therapies have been applied. The patient's situation can be managed in the clinic only for a few weeks or months before becoming fatal.
Our DC+CIK cancer treatment provides new hope for patients, through an innovative approach based on stem cells, the body's own natural mechanism for healing and regeneration.
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are important immune cells, and dendritic cells (DC) can be induced to be co-cultured with CD3 + CD56 + (NKT) phenotype main groups of T-killer cells (DCCIK). Immunotherapy in cancer patients showed a broad spectrum of killing tumor cells, its function and use of exogenous split-mediated tumor cell material, tumor-associated antigen-activated DC, CIK cells co-cultured cells different, is not major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted, and there is a strong anti-tumor immune activity. It also significantly reduces the immune tolerance of cancer patients, a decrease of T suppressor cells (Treg1 immunosuppression and effectively prevent the generation of autoimmune disease in patients.

In short, DC+CIK cells in the human body's own immune system enhance and rebuild its immune system, automatically identify and track tumor cells, and transmit this information to patients own immune cells, promoting their activation and proliferate to eliminate residual metastatic lesions, prevent spread and recurrence of cancer and enhance immunity. This improves the quality of life of patients, ultimately prolonging the patients life for years.

 

Pancreatic Cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas — an organ in your abdomen that lies horizontally behind the lower part of your stomach. Your pancreas secretes enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help regulate the metabolism of sugars.

 

Pancreatic cancer often has a poor prognosis, even when diagnosed early. Pancreatic cancer typically spreads rapidly and is seldom detected in its early stages, which is a major reason why it's a leading cause of cancer death. Signs and symptoms may not appear until pancreatic cancer is quite advanced and surgical removal isn't possible.

Symptoms

 

Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer often don't occur until the disease is advanced. When signs and symptoms do appear, they may include:

 

Upper abdominal pain that may radiate to your back

 

Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)

Loss of appetite

Weight loss

Depression

Blood clots

Causes

 

It's not clear what causes pancreatic cancer.

Understanding your pancreas
Your pancreas is about 6 inches (about 15 centimeters) long and looks something like a pear lying on its side. The pancreas is a crucial part of your digestive system. It secretes hormones, including insulin, to help your body process sugar. And it produces digestive juices to help your body digest food.

How pancreatic cancer forms
Pancreatic cancer occurs when cells in your pancreas develop mutations in their DNA. These mutations cause cells to grow uncontrollably and to continue living after normal cells would die. These accumulating cells can form a tumor.

Most pancreatic cancer begins in the cells that line the ducts of the pancreas. This type of cancer is called pancreatic adenocarcinoma or pancreatic exocrine cancer.

Rarely, cancer can form in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. This type of cancer is called islet cell cancer or pancreatic endocrine cancer.

Risk factors

 

Factors that may increase your risk of pancreatic cancer include:

 

Being African-American

 

Being overweight or obese

Chronic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)

Diabetes

Family history of genetic syndromes that can increase cancer risk, including a BRCA2 gene mutation, Lynch syndrome and familial atypical mole-malignant melanoma (FAMMM)

Personal or family history of pancreatic cancer

Smoking

Complications

As pancreatic cancer progresses, it can cause complications such as:

 

Jaundice. Pancreatic cancer that blocks the liver's bile duct can cause jaundice. Signs include yellow skin and eyes, dark-colored urine, and pale-colored stools.

 

 

 

Your doctor may recommend that a plastic or metal tube (stent) be placed inside the bile duct to hold it open. In some cases a bypass may be needed to create a new way for bile to flow from the liver to the intestines.

 

 

Pain. A growing tumor may press on nerves in your abdomen, causing pain that can become severe. Pain medications can help you feel more comfortable. Radiation therapy may help stop tumor growth temporarily to give you some relief.

 

 

In severe cases, your doctor may recommend a procedure to inject alcohol into the nerves that control pain in your abdomen (celiac plexus block). This procedure stops the nerves from sending pain signals to your brain.

 

 

Bowel obstruction. Pancreatic cancer that grows into or presses on the small intestine (duodenum) can block the flow of digested food from your stomach into your intestines.

 

 

Your doctor may recommend a tube (stent) be placed in your small intestine to hold it open. Or bypass surgery may be necessary to attach your stomach to a lower point in your intestines that isn't blocked by cancer.

 

 

Weight loss. A number of factors may cause weight loss in people with pancreatic cancer. Nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatments or a tumor pressing on your stomach may make it difficult to eat. Or your body may have difficulty properly processing nutrients from food because your pancreas isn't making enough digestive juices.

 

 

Pancreatic enzyme supplements may be recommended to aid in digestion. Try to maintain your weight by adding extra calories where you can and making mealtime as pleasant and relaxed as possible.

Treatment

 

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.

 

Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream). Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Tumors that stay in one spot and demonstrate limited growth are generally considered to be benign.

More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:

A cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymph systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion

That cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.

When a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body and grows, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, it is said to have metastasized. This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat.

Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.

Cancer symptoms are quite varied and depend on where the cancer is located, where it has spread, and how big the tumor is. Some cancers can be felt or seen through the skin - a lump on the breast or testicle can be an indicator of cancer in those locations. Skin cancer (melanoma) is often noted by a change in a wart or mole on the skin. Some oral cancers present white patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue.

Other cancers have symptoms that are less physically apparent. Some brain tumors tend to present symptoms early in the disease as they affect important cognitive functions. Pancreas cancers are usually too small to cause symptoms until they cause pain by pushing against nearby nerves or interfere with liver function to cause a yellowing of the skin and eyes called jaundice. Symptoms also can be created as a tumor grows and pushes against organs and blood vessels. For example, colon cancers lead to symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, and changes in stool size. Bladder or prostate cancers cause changes in bladder function such as more frequent or infrequent urination.

As cancer cells use the body's energy and interfere with normal hormone function, it is possible to present symptoms such as fever, fatigue, excessive sweating, anemia, and unexplained weight loss. However, these symptoms are common in several other maladies as well. For example, coughing and hoarseness can point to lung or throat cancer as well as several other conditions.

When cancer spreads, or metastasizes, additional symptoms can present themselves in the newly affected area. Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes are common and likely to be present early. If cancer spreads to the brain, patients may experience vertigo, headaches, or seizures. Spreading to the lungs may cause coughing and shortness of breath. In addition, the liver may become enlarged and cause jaundice and bones can become painful, brittle, and break easily. Symptoms of metastasis ultimately depend on the location to which the cancer has spread.

There are five broad groups that are used to classify cancer.

Carcinomas are characterized by cells that cover internal and external parts of the body such as lung, breast, and colon cancer.

Sarcomas are characterized by cells that are located in bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, muscle, and other supportive tissues.

Lymphomas are cancers that begin in the lymph nodes and immune system tissues.

Leukemias are cancers that begin in the bone marrow and often accumulate in the bloodstream.

Adenomas are cancers that arise in the thyroid, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, and other glandular tissues.

Cancers are often referred to by terms that contain a prefix related to the cell type in which the cancer originated and a suffix such as -sarcoma, -carcinoma, or just -oma. Common prefixes include:

Adeno- = gland

Chondro- = cartilage

Erythro- = red blood cell

Hemangio- = blood vessels

Hepato- = liver

Lipo- = fat

Lympho- = white blood cell

Melano- = pigment cell

Myelo- = bone marrow

Myo- = muscle

Osteo- = bone

Uro- = bladder

Retino- = eye

Neuro- = brain

 

Early detection of cancer can greatly improve the odds of successful treatment and survival. Physicians use information from symptoms and several other procedures to diagnose cancer. Imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans, and ultrasound scans are used regularly in order to detect where a tumor is located and what organs may be affected by it. Doctors may also conduct an endoscopy, which is a procedure that uses a thin tube with a camera and light at one end, to look for abnormalities inside the body.

 

Extracting cancer cells and looking at them under a microscope is the only absolute way to diagnose cancer. This procedure is called a biopsy. Other types of molecular diagnostic tests are frequently employed as well. Physicians will analyze your body's sugars, fats, proteins, and DNA at the molecular level. For example, cancerous prostate cells release a higher level of a chemical called PSA (prostate-specific antigen) into the bloodstream that can be detected by a blood test. Molecular diagnostics, biopsies, and imaging techniques are all used together to diagnose cancer.

 For more information on stem cell immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer, please complete a medical form here or visit http://hopestemcell.com/cancer-immunology

 

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