September 25, 2018

 

Immunotherapy for Multiple Myeloma-Hope Medical Group

 

Disadvantages of Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy works by interrupting cell division in cells that are multiplying quickly. Since cancer cells reproduce at an abnormally fast rate, they are affected by chemotherapy. Several cycles are needed to catch more cells, since not all of them will be dividing on the day you get chemotherapy. Unfortunately, other cells in your body also reproduce quickly enough to be affected by the treatment. Hair follicles shut down, which means your hair either falls out or does not grow. The linings of the mouth, stomach, and intestines also contain cells that multiply rapidly. These cells are disrupted by chemotherapy, which can cause mouth sores, a "burned tongue" sensation, nausea, constipation, hemorrhoids, and diarrhea.
The disadvantage of radiotherapy is also the worry that the cancer will come back.

Non-surgical treatments
DC + CIK cells can effectively cure cancer.
Today, tumors can be detected early and removed with advanced surgery and treatment, but current therapies cannot prevent or eradicate cancer after metastatic spread to distant organs. The prognosis is very poor if Cancer spreads to the brain. As a shielded "sanctuary site," the brain may harbor cancer cells which resist current treatments and can develop into satellite tumors, known as metastases, long after chemo-, radiation, or immuno- therapies have been applied. The patient's situation can be managed in the clinic only for a few weeks or months before becoming fatal.
Our DC+CIK cancer treatment provides new hope for patients, through an innovative approach based on stem cells, the body's own natural mechanism for healing and regeneration.
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are important immune cells, and dendritic cells (DC) can be induced to be co-cultured with CD3 + CD56 + (NKT) phenotype main groups of T-killer cells (DCCIK). Immunotherapy in cancer patients showed a broad spectrum of killing tumor cells, its function and use of exogenous split-mediated tumor cell material, tumor-associated antigen-activated DC, CIK cells co-cultured cells different, is not major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted, and there is a strong anti-tumor immune activity. It also significantly reduces the immune tolerance of cancer patients, a decrease of T suppressor cells (Treg1 immunosuppression and effectively prevent the generation of autoimmune disease in patients.

In short, DC+CIK cells in the human body's own immune system enhance and rebuild its immune system, automatically identify and track tumor cells, and transmit this information to patients own immune cells, promoting their activation and proliferate to eliminate residual metastatic lesions, prevent spread and recurrence of cancer and enhance immunity. This improves the quality of life of patients, ultimately prolonging the patients life for years.

Multiple Myeloma is a cancer of your plasma cells, a type of white blood cell present in your bone marrow. Plasma cells normally make proteins called antibodies to help you fight infections.

In multiple myeloma, a group of plasma cells (myeloma cells) becomes cancerous and multiplies, raising the number of plasma cells to a higher than normal level. Since these cells normally make proteins (antibodies), the level of abnormal proteins in your blood also may go up. Health problems caused by multiple myeloma can affect your bones, immune system, kidneys and red blood cell count.

If you have multiple myeloma but don't have symptoms, your doctor may just monitor your condition. If you're experiencing symptoms, a number of treatments are available to help control multiple myeloma.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary from person to person. Early in the disease, the condition may not cause any symptoms (smoldering multiple myeloma). As the disease progresses, it's likely that you'll experience at least one of the four major problems common to multiple myeloma, which include:

 

A high level of calcium in your blood. This can occur when calcium from affected bones appears in your blood. High calcium levels cause excessive thirst, nausea, constipation, loss of appetite and confusion.

Kidney (renal) failure. High levels of certain types of abnormal monoclonal proteins (M proteins), which are called light chains or Bence Jones proteins, damage the kidneys.

Anemia-related fatigue. This fatigue occurs as myeloma cells replace oxygen-carrying red blood cells in your bone marrow.

Bone damage and fractures. The type of bone damage in multiple myeloma is referred to as "osteolytic" or "lytic," and appears as "punched out" spots on X-rays. Bone pain is a common symptom, particularly in your back, pelvis, ribs and skull.

These four problems are often referred to by the acronym CRAB, which refers to calcium levels, renal failure, anemia and bone damage.

Other signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma may include:

Repeated infections — such as pneumonia, sinusitis, bladder or kidney infections, skin infections, and shingles

Weight loss

Weakness or numbness in your legs

Causes

Although the exact cause isn't known, doctors do know that multiple myeloma begins with one abnormal plasma cell in your bone marrow — the soft, blood-producing tissue that fills in the center of most of your bones. This abnormal cell then starts to multiply.

 

Because abnormal cancerous cells don't mature and then die as normal cells do, they accumulate, eventually overwhelming the production of healthy cells. In healthy bone marrow, less than 5 percent of the cells are plasma cells. But in people with multiple myeloma, more than 10 percent of the cells may be plasma cells.

Because myeloma cells may circulate in low numbers in your blood, they can populate bone marrow in other parts of your body, even far from where they began. That's why the disease is called multiple myeloma. Uncontrolled plasma cell growth can damage bones and surrounding tissue. It can also interfere with your immune system's ability to fight infections by inhibiting your body's production of normal antibodies.

 

Researchers investigating cause
Researchers are studying the DNA of plasma cells to try to understand what changes occur that cause these cells to become cancer cells. Though they haven't yet discovered the cause of these changes, they have found that almost all people with multiple myeloma have genetic abnormalities in their plasma cells that probably contributed to the cancer.

The genetic abnormalities associated with multiple myeloma include:

A defect related to chromosome 14 in which a piece of one chromosome moves to a different chromosome (translocation)

Extra copies of certain chromosomes (hyperdiploidy)

An abnormality in which part or all of chromosome 13 is missing

A connection with MGUS
Multiple myeloma almost always starts out as a relatively benign condition called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). In the United States, about 3 percent of people older than age 50 have MGUS. Each year, about 1 percent of people with MGUS develop multiple myeloma or a related cancer. MGUS, like multiple myeloma, is marked by the presence of M proteins — produced by abnormal plasma cells — in your blood. However, in MGUS, no damage to the body occurs.

Risk factors

 

Multiple myeloma isn't contagious. Most people who develop multiple myeloma have no clearly identifiable risk factors for the disease.

 

Some factors that may increase your risk of multiple myeloma include:

 

Age. The majority of people who develop multiple myeloma are older than 50, with most diagnosed in their mid-60s. Few cases occur in people younger than 40.

Sex. Men are more likely to develop the disease than are women.

Race. Blacks are about twice as likely to develop multiple myeloma as are whites.

History of a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Every year 1 percent of the people with MGUS in the United States develop multiple myeloma.

Obesity. Your risk of multiple myeloma is increased if you're overweight or obese.

Other factors that may increase your risk of developing multiple myeloma include exposure to radiation and working in petroleum-related industries.

Complications

 

Multiple myeloma can result in several complications:

 

Impaired immunity. Myeloma cells inhibit the production of antibodies needed for normal immunity. Having multiple myeloma may make you more likely to develop infections, such as pneumonia, sinusitis, bladder or kidney infections, skin infections, and shingles.

 

 

 

Bone problems. Multiple myeloma also can affect your bones, leading to erosion of bone mass and fractures. The condition may cause compression of your spinal cord. Signs of this medical emergency include weakness, or even paralysis, in your legs.

 

 

 

Impaired kidney function. Multiple myeloma may cause problems with kidney function, including kidney failure. Higher calcium levels in the blood related to eroding bones can interfere with your kidneys' ability to filter your blood's waste. The proteins produced by the myeloma cells can cause similar problems, especially if you become dehydrated.

 

 

 

Anemia. As cancerous cells crowd out normal blood cells, multiple myeloma can also cause anemia and other blood problems.

Treatment

 

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.

 

Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream). Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Tumors that stay in one spot and demonstrate limited growth are generally considered to be benign.

More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:

A cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymph systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion

That cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.

When a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body and grows, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, it is said to have metastasized. This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat.

Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.

Cancer symptoms are quite varied and depend on where the cancer is located, where it has spread, and how big the tumor is. Some cancers can be felt or seen through the skin - a lump on the breast or testicle can be an indicator of cancer in those locations. Skin cancer (melanoma) is often noted by a change in a wart or mole on the skin. Some oral cancers present white patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue.

Other cancers have symptoms that are less physically apparent. Some brain tumors tend to present symptoms early in the disease as they affect important cognitive functions. Pancreas cancers are usually too small to cause symptoms until they cause pain by pushing against nearby nerves or interfere with liver function to cause a yellowing of the skin and eyes called jaundice. Symptoms also can be created as a tumor grows and pushes against organs and blood vessels. For example, colon cancers lead to symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, and changes in stool size. Bladder or prostate cancers cause changes in bladder function such as more frequent or infrequent urination.

As cancer cells use the body's energy and interfere with normal hormone function, it is possible to present symptoms such as fever, fatigue, excessive sweating, anemia, and unexplained weight loss. However, these symptoms are common in several other maladies as well. For example, coughing and hoarseness can point to lung or throat cancer as well as several other conditions.

When cancer spreads, or metastasizes, additional symptoms can present themselves in the newly affected area. Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes are common and likely to be present early. If cancer spreads to the brain, patients may experience vertigo, headaches, or seizures. Spreading to the lungs may cause coughing and shortness of breath. In addition, the liver may become enlarged and cause jaundice and bones can become painful, brittle, and break easily. Symptoms of metastasis ultimately depend on the location to which the cancer has spread.

There are five broad groups that are used to classify cancer.

Carcinomas are characterized by cells that cover internal and external parts of the body such as lung, breast, and colon cancer.

Sarcomas are characterized by cells that are located in bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, muscle, and other supportive tissues.

Lymphomas are cancers that begin in the lymph nodes and immune system tissues.

Leukemias are cancers that begin in the bone marrow and often accumulate in the bloodstream.

Adenomas are cancers that arise in the thyroid, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, and other glandular tissues.

Cancers are often referred to by terms that contain a prefix related to the cell type in which the cancer originated and a suffix such as -sarcoma, -carcinoma, or just -oma. Common prefixes include:

Adeno- = gland

Chondro- = cartilage

Erythro- = red blood cell

Hemangio- = blood vessels

Hepato- = liver

Lipo- = fat

Lympho- = white blood cell

Melano- = pigment cell

Myelo- = bone marrow

Myo- = muscle

Osteo- = bone

Uro- = bladder

Retino- = eye

Neuro- = brain

 

Early detection of cancer can greatly improve the odds of successful treatment and survival. Physicians use information from symptoms and several other procedures to diagnose cancer. Imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans, and ultrasound scans are used regularly in order to detect where a tumor is located and what organs may be affected by it. Doctors may also conduct an endoscopy, which is a procedure that uses a thin tube with a camera and light at one end, to look for abnormalities inside the body.

 

Extracting cancer cells and looking at them under a microscope is the only absolute way to diagnose cancer. This procedure is called a biopsy. Other types of molecular diagnostic tests are frequently employed as well. Physicians will analyze your body's sugars, fats, proteins, and DNA at the molecular level. For example, cancerous prostate cells release a higher level of a chemical called PSA (prostate-specific antigen) into the bloodstream that can be detected by a blood test. Molecular diagnostics, biopsies, and imaging techniques are all used together to diagnose cancer.

 For more information on stem cell immunotherapy for Multiple Myeloma, please complete a medical form here or visit http://hopestemcell.com/cancer-immunology

 

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