November 21, 2018

 

Immunotherapy for Colon Cancer-Hope Medical Group

Disadvantages of Radiotherapy & Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy works by interrupting cell division in cells that are multiplying quickly. Since cancer cells reproduce at an abnormally fast rate, they are affected by chemotherapy. Several cycles are needed to catch more cells, since not all of them will be dividing on the day you get chemotherapy. Unfortunately, other cells in your body also reproduce quickly enough to be affected by the treatment. Hair follicles shut down, which means your hair either falls out or does not grow. The linings of the mouth, stomach, and intestines also contain cells that multiply rapidly. These cells are disrupted by chemotherapy, which can cause mouth sores, a "burned tongue" sensation, nausea, constipation, hemorrhoids, and diarrhea.
The disadvantage of radiotherapy is also the worry that the cancer will come back.

Non-surgical treatments
DC + CIK cells can effectively cure cancer.
Today, tumors can be detected early and removed with advanced surgery and treatment, but current therapies cannot prevent or eradicate cancer after metastatic spread to distant organs. The prognosis is very poor if Cancer spreads to the brain. As a shielded "sanctuary site," the brain may harbor cancer cells which resist current treatments and can develop into satellite tumors, known as metastases, long after chemo-, radiation, or immuno- therapies have been applied. The patient's situation can be managed in the clinic only for a few weeks or months before becoming fatal.
Our DC+CIK cancer treatment provides new hope for patients, through an innovative approach based on stem cells, the body's own natural mechanism for healing and regeneration.
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are important immune cells, and dendritic cells (DC) can be induced to be co-cultured with CD3 + CD56 + (NKT) phenotype main groups of T-killer cells (DCCIK). Immunotherapy in cancer patients showed a broad spectrum of killing tumor cells, its function and use of exogenous split-mediated tumor cell material, tumor-associated antigen-activated DC, CIK cells co-cultured cells different, is not major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted, and there is a strong anti-tumor immune activity. It also significantly reduces the immune tolerance of cancer patients, a decrease of T suppressor cells (Treg1 immunosuppression and effectively prevent the generation of autoimmune disease in patients.

In short, DC+CIK cells in the human body's own immune system enhance and rebuild its immune system, automatically identify and track tumor cells, and transmit this information to patients own immune cells, promoting their activation and proliferate to eliminate residual metastatic lesions, prevent spread and recurrence of cancer and enhance immunity. This improves the quality of life of patients, ultimately prolonging the patients life for years.

 

 

Colon Cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last several inches of the colon. Together, they're often referred to as colorectal cancers.

Most cases of colon cancer begin as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps. Over time some of these polyps become colon cancers.

 

Polyps may be small and produce few, if any, symptoms. For this reason, doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying polyps before they become colon cancer.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:

 

A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool

 

Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool

Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain

A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely

Weakness or fatigue

Unexplained weight loss

 

Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they'll likely vary, depending on the cancer's size and location in your large intestine.

Causes

In most cases, it's not clear what causes colon cancer. Doctors know that colon cancer occurs when healthy cells in the colon become altered. Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes this growth gets out of control — cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. In the colon and rectum, this exaggerated growth may cause precancerous cells to form in the lining of your intestine. Over a long period of time — spanning up to several years — some of these areas of abnormal cells may become cancerous.

Precancerous growths in the colon
Colon cancer most often begins as clumps of precancerous cells (polyps) on the inside lining of the colon. Polyps can appear mushroom-shaped. Precancerous growths can also be flat or recessed into the wall of the colon (nonpolypoid lesions). Removing polyps and nonpolypoid lesions before they become cancerous can prevent colon cancer.

Inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of colon cancer
Inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of colon cancer can be passed through families, but these inherited genes are linked to only a small percentage of colon cancers. Inherited gene mutations don't make cancer inevitable, but they can increase an individual's risk of cancer significantly. Inherited colon cancer syndromes include:

 

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). FAP is a rare disorder that causes you to develop thousands of polyps in the lining of your colon and rectum. People with untreated FAP have a greatly increased risk of developing colon cancer before age 40.

 

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). HNPCC, also called Lynch syndrome, increases the risk of colon cancer and other cancers. People with HNPCC tend to develop colon cancer before age 50.

 

Both FAP and HNPCC can be detected through genetic testing. If you're concerned about your family's history of colon cancer, talk to your doctor about whether your family history suggests you have a risk of these conditions.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of colon cancer include:

 

Older age. About 90 percent of people diagnosed with colon cancer are older than 50. Colon cancer can occur in younger people, but it occurs much less frequently.

 

 African-American race. African-Americans have a greater risk of colon cancer than do people of other races.

 A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps. If you've already had colon cancer or adenomatous polyps, you have a greater risk of colon cancer in the future.

 

Inflammatory intestinal conditions. Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, can increase your risk of colon cancer.


Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk.
Genetic syndromes passed through generations of your family can increase your risk of colon cancer. These syndromes include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, which is also known as Lynch syndrome.

 

Family history of colon cancer and colon polyps. You're more likely to develop colon cancer if you have a parent, sibling or child with the disease. If more than one family member has colon cancer or rectal cancer, your risk is even greater. In some cases, this connection may not be hereditary or genetic. Instead, cancers within the same family may result from shared exposure to an environmental carcinogen or from diet or lifestyle factors.

 

Low-fiber, high-fat diet. Colon cancer and rectal cancer may be associated with a diet low in fiber and high in fat and calories. Research in this area has had mixed results. Some studies have found an increased risk of colon cancer in people who eat diets high in red meat.

 
A sedentary lifestyle. If you're inactive, you're more likely to develop colon cancer. Getting regular physical activity may reduce your risk of colon cancer.

 

Diabetes. People with diabetes and insulin resistance may have an increased risk of colon cancer.

 

Obesity. People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer and an increased risk of dying of colon cancer when compared with people considered normal weight.

 

Smoking. People who smoke cigarettes may have an increased risk of colon cancer.

 

Alcohol. Heavy use of alcohol may increase your risk of colon cancer.

 

Radiation therapy for cancer. Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers may increase the risk of colon cancer.

 

Treatment

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.

 

Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream). Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Tumors that stay in one spot and demonstrate limited growth are generally considered to be benign.

More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:

1. a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymph systems, destroying healthy
tissue in a process called invasion

2. that cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.

When a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body and grows, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, it is said to have metastasized. This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat.

Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.

Cancer symptoms are quite varied and depend on where the cancer is located, where it has spread, and how big the tumor is. Some cancers can be felt or seen through the skin – a lump on the breast or testicle can be an indicator of cancer in those locations. Skin cancer (melanoma) is often noted by a change in a wart or mole on the skin. Some oral cancers present white patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue.

Other cancers have symptoms that are less physically apparent. Some brain tumors tend to present symptoms early in the disease as they affect important cognitive functions. Pancreas cancers are usually too small to cause symptoms until they cause pain by pushing against nearby nerves or interfere with liver function to cause a yellowing of the skin and eyes called jaundice. Symptoms also can be created as a tumor grows and pushes against organs and blood vessels. For example, colon cancers lead to symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, and changes in stool size. Bladder or prostate cancers cause changes in bladder function such as more frequent or infrequent urination.

As cancer cells use the body’s energy and interfere with normal hormone function, it is possible to present symptoms such as fever, fatigue, excessive sweating, anemia, and unexplained weight loss. However, these symptoms are common in several other maladies as well. For example, coughing and hoarseness can point to lung or throat cancer as well as several other conditions.

When cancer spreads, or metastasizes, additional symptoms can present themselves in the newly affected area. Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes are common and likely to be present early. If cancer spreads to the brain, patients may experience vertigo, headaches, or seizures. Spreading to the lungs may cause coughing and shortness of breath. In addition, the liver may become enlarged and cause jaundice and bones can become painful, brittle, and break easily. Symptoms of metastasis ultimately depend on the location to which the cancer has spread.

There are five broad groups that are used to classify cancer.

1. Carcinomas are characterized by cells that cover internal and external parts of the body such as lung, breast,
and colon cancer.

2. Sarcomas are characterized by cells that are located in bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, muscle,
and other supportive tissues.

3. Lymphomas are cancers that begin in the lymph nodes and immune system tissues.

4. Leukemias are cancers that begin in the bone marrow and often accumulate in the bloodstream.

5. Adenomas are cancers that arise in the thyroid, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, and other
glandular tissues.

Cancers are often referred to by terms that contain a prefix related to the cell type in which the cancer originated and a suffix such as -sarcoma, -carcinoma, or just -oma. Common prefixes include:

Adeno- = gland

Chondro- = cartilage

Erythro- = red blood cell

Hemangio- = blood vessels

Hepato- = liver

Lipo- = fat

Lympho- = white blood cell

Melano- = pigment cell

Myelo- = bone marrow

Myo- = muscle

Osteo- = bone

Uro- = bladder

Retino- = eye

Neuro- = brain

 

Early detection of cancer can greatly improve the odds of successful treatment and survival. Physicians use information from symptoms and several other procedures to diagnose cancer. Imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans, and ultrasound scans are used regularly in order to detect where a tumor is located and what organs may be affected by it. Doctors may also conduct an endoscopy, which is a procedure that uses a thin tube with a camera and light at one end, to look for abnormalities inside the body.

 

Extracting cancer cells and looking at them under a microscope is the only absolute way to diagnose cancer. This procedure is called a biopsy. Other types of molecular diagnostic tests are frequently employed as well. Physicians will analyze your body’s sugars, fats, proteins, and DNA at the molecular level. For example, cancerous prostate cells release a higher level of a chemical called PSA (prostate-specific antigen) into the bloodstream that can be detected by a blood test. Molecular diagnostics, biopsies, and imaging techniques are all used together to diagnose cancer.

For more information on stem cell immunotherapy for colon cancer, please complete a medical form here or visit http://hopestemcell.com/cancer-immunology

 

 

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